Anal. Method Environ. Chem. J. 3 (4) (2020) 5-16
Research Article, Issue 4
Analytical Methods in Environmental Chemistry Journal
Journal home page: www.amecj.com/ir
AMECJ
Zinc based metal–organic framework for nickel adsorption
in water and wastewater samples by ultrasound assisted-
dispersive-micro solid phase extraction coupled to
electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry
Negar Motakef Kazemi
a,*
a,*
Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic
Azad University, Tehran, Iran
ABSTRACT
In this research, Zn
2
(BDC)
2
(DABCO) metal–organic framework
(MOF) as a solid phase was used for separation and preconcentration
toxic nickel ions (Ni) from water samples by ultrasound assisted-
dispersive-micro solid phase extraction coupled to electrothermal
   
       


synthesis. By procedure, 25 mg of Zn
2
(BDC)
2
(DABCO) as MOF
adsorbent was added to 25 mL of water samples and then, Ni ions
chemically adsorbed based on dative bonding of nitrogen in DABCO

2
(C
2
H
4
)
3


      

nickel ions as a physically and chemically adsorption was obtained

of Zn
2
(BDC)
2
(DABCO), MOF for nickel was acquired 125.7 mg g
-1
at pH=8.




,
       

Keywords:
Metal–organic framework,
Nickel,
Adsorption,
Dispersive- micro solid phase
extraction,
Water sample,

spectrometry
ARTICLE INFO:
Received 14 Sep 2020
Revised form 15 Nov 2020
Accepted 30 Nov 2020
Available online 29 Dec 2020
*Corresponding Author: 
motakef@iaups.ac.ir
https://doi.org/10.24200/amecj.v3.i04.123
------------------------
1. Introduction

issues in the world today   
concentration of heavy metals in environment has
been attributed to population growth, economic
   
years        
human body after release into the environment.
      
mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and disease
in humans, as well as a serious threat to the
environment and public health . Nickel is one
of the most toxic heavy metal for humans even in
6
Anal. Method Environ. Chem. J. 3 (4) (2020) 5-16
low concentrations. Nickel toxicity causes some
disorders in human body such as bone diseases,
damage to the liver and the kidney, bronchitis, lung
cancer and CNS problem . Nickel ions enter
into environment from waste water, water and
air from industries and factories such as battery
Company, mining and electroplating. Normal range
of nickel in human serum (0.2 µgL
-1
) is reported by
American conference of governmental industrial
hygienists (ACGIH). Also, the nickel values in
water samples are ranges from 3 to 10 µg L
-1
and
average levels in drinking water is between 2.0-
4.3 µg L
-1
. Recently, the different techniques
    
(F-AAS) , electrothermal atomic absorption
   
, ion-exchange , chemical precipitation
, electrodialysis , adsorption ,
spectrophotometry  and inductively coupled
    were
used for nickel determination in water and human

concentration in drinking waters and wastewater,
the sample preparation must be used to separation
      
for sample preparation of Ni were reported in
water samples. For examples, the solid-phase

, the dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction
, ultrasound-assisted solid
    and micro
  were previously presented
for preparation of water samples by researchers.
   
      
product innovation . Nanomaterials have
been developed due to their special properties and
various application potentials . Recently,
the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have
expanded as porous hybrid organic–inorganic
materials     
via self-assembly of primary building blocks
including metal ions (or metal clusters) as
metal centers, and bridging ligands as linkers
      
methods such as solvothermal, hydrothermal,
ionic liquids, microwave, sonochemical, diffusion,
electrochemical, mechanochemical, and laser
ablation . MOFs have received great attention
because of their unique properties in many areas
  
liquid-suspension solid phase micro extraction is
a good candidate method for Ni extraction from
waters .
In the present study, the nickel absorption is
one of the most considerable applications of
Zn
2
(BDC)
2


was used for nickel adsorption/extraction from
water samples and the concentration of nickel ions

2. Experimental
2.1. Materials
All reagents with high purity and analytical
grade were purchased from Merck
(Darmstadt, Germany). Materials including
   
2
.2H
2
O), 1,4

   
(DMF) were purchased and used for synthesis
of Zn
2
(BDC)
2
   

from Sartorius, Australia (Minisart® Syringe
     
   
932, Australia) equipped with a graphite furnace
were used for the determination of nickel in water
  
      
was used for determining of ultra-trace nickel in

-
1

the glassy electrode was used for measuring pH

     
      
      
Ni(NO3)
2
was purchased from Sigma, Germany.
All of Ni standard 0.5-5 ppb was daily prepared