Optimization and effect of varying catalyst concentration and trans-esterification temperature on the yield of biodiesel production from palm kernel oil and groundnut oil

Volume 5, Issue 03, Pages 55-69, Sep 2022 *** Field: Analytical Environmental Chemistry

  • Blessing Margreth Obidike
  • Nelson Onyekachi Okwara
  • Andrew Wirnkor Verla
  • Enyoh Christian Ebere, Corresponding Author, Group Research in Analytical Chemistry, Environment and Climate change (GRACE&CC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State
  • Johnpaul Mgbagwu
Keywords: Biodiesel, Trans-Esterification, Mineral diesel, Palm kernel oil, Groundnut oil, Optimization


The negative environmental impact generated by fossil fuel has resulted in the demand to search for alternative routes of renewable sources of energy, such as biodiesel, that have unlimited duration while having little or no hazardous impact. In this study, trans-esterification of palm kernel oil and groundnut oil was carried out using sodium methoxide (CH3ONa) as a catalyst. The effect of varying Sodium Methoxide (CH3ONa) catalyst concentrations of (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) % w/v at trans-esterification temperatures of (50, 55, and 60) oC on the yield of biodiesel from groundnut oil and palm kernel oil was determined. This was to identify the catalyst concentration and trans-esterification temperature with optimal process yield. The process gave optimum biodiesel yields of 98% and 84% by volume of groundnut oil and palm kernel oil at reaction conditions of 0.5%w/v CH3ONa as catalyst, trans-esterification temperature of 55oC, 360 rpm mixing rate and a reaction time of 90 minutes. The biodiesel produced was analyzed for fuel properties using the ASTM standard, and the results obtained were as follows; specific gravity (0.8835, 0.8815 at 15oC), flash point (98, 124) oC, and  viscosity (5.2, 7.6) mm2S-1 for palm kernel oil and groundnut oil respectively.


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How to Cite
Obidike, B., Okwara, N., Verla, A., Ebere, E., & Mgbagwu, J. (2022). Optimization and effect of varying catalyst concentration and trans-esterification temperature on the yield of biodiesel production from palm kernel oil and groundnut oil. Analytical Methods in Environmental Chemistry Journal, 5(03), 55-69. https://doi.org/10.24200/amecj.v5.i03.203
Original Article