Dolomite utilization for removal of Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions from wastewater before determination by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy

Volume 7, Issue 02, Pages 74-88, Jun 2024 *** Field: Analytical Chemistry

  • Firas Fadhel Ali Department of Chemistry, Education College for Women, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq
  • Ahmed S. Al-Rawi Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq
  • Abdulsalam M. Aljumialy Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Applied Sciences, University of Fallujah, Fallujah, Iraq
  • Mohammed Oday Ezzat, Corresponding Author Department of Chemistry, Education College for Women, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq
Keywords: Flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, Adsorption, Dolomite, Wastewater, Heavy metal ions


This study aims to use dolomite to remove Zn2+ and Cu2+ from wastewater. The adsorption process of the Zn2+ and Cu2+ was performed using the batch method at various factors (such as the amount of adsorbent, contact time, particle size, pH media, temperature, and initial concentration) to investigate the optimum removal conditions. The flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS) was used to determine Zn2+ and Cu2+ after removal steps. The LOD of Zn2+ and Cu2+ were 0.05 mg L-1 and 0.08 mg L-1, respectively. Results showed that the adsorbent dolomite efficiently removed Zn2+ and Cu2+ with up to 98 % when 0.4 g of dolomite was used. The smaller dolomite particle size had higher removal efficiency for Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions. The results showed the removal of Zn2+ and Cu2+ was the maximum in the basic medium. Also, the removal of ions reached the maximum when dolomite had been in contact for 30 minutes with the wastewater. The experimental results of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms show linearity where R2 is more than (0.998 and 0.978) and (0.9915 and 0.9996) for Zn2+ and Cu2+, respectively. The qmax was obtained at 91.74 mg g-1 for Cu2+ and 44.24 mg g-1 for Zn2+.



N. Abdullah, N. Yusof, W. J. Lau, J. Jaafar, A. F. Ismail, Recent trends of heavy metal removal from water/wastewater by membrane technologies, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 76 (2019) 17–38.

S. Ahmadi, C. A. Igwegbe, Adsorptive removal of phenol and aniline by modified bentonite: adsorption isotherm and kinetics study, Appl. Water Sci., 8 (2018) 170.

F. F. Ali, A. S. Al-Rawi, A. M. Aljumialy, Limestone residues of sculpting factories utilization as sorbent for removing Pb (II) ion from aqueous solution, Results Chem., 4 (2022) 100621.

M. Karnib, A. Kabbani, H. Holail, Z. Olama, Heavy metals removal using activated carbon, silica and silica activated carbon composite, Energy Procedia, 50 (2014) 113–120.

K. Atkovska, K. Lisichkov, G. Ruseska, A. T. Dimitrov, A. Grozdanov, Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater using conventional and nanosorbents: a review, J. Chem. Technol. Metall., 53 (2018) 202-219.

M. Yari, Removal of Pb (II) ion from aqueous solution by graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide-thiol: effect of cysteamine concentration on the bonding constant, Desalin. Water Treat., 57 (2016) 11195–11210.

O. Moradi, M. Aghaie, K. Zare, M. Monajjemi, H. Aghaie, The study of adsorption characteristics Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions onto PHEMA and P (MMA-HEMA) surfaces from aqueous single solution, J. Hazard. Mater., 170 (2009), 673–679.

A. S. Al-Rawi, A. M. Aljumialy, W. M. Saod, E. A. Al-Heety, Pollution Level and Sources of Heavy Metals in Indoor Dust from College of Science, University of Anbar Campus, Iraq, in IOP Conference Series: Earth Environ. Sci., IOP Publishing, 1300 (2024) 012019.

WHO., Guidelines for drinking-water quality, World Health Organization, 2022.

H. Çelebi, G. Gök, O. Gök, Adsorption capability of brewed tea waste in waters containing toxic lead (II), cadmium (II), nickel (II), and zinc (II) heavy metal ions, Sci. Reports, 10 (2020) 17570.

F. Edition, Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 4th ed, World Health Organization, 38 (2011) 104–108.

T. Zhang, Removal of heavy metals and dyes by clay-based adsorbents: From natural clays to 1D and 2D nano-composites, Chem. Eng. J., 420 (2021) 127574.

A. Khaligh, F. Golbabaei, A Vahid, On-line micro column preconcentration system based on amino bimodal mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a novel adsorbent for removal and speciation of chromium (III, VI) in environmental samples, J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 13 (2015) 47.

A.A.M. Beigi, MM Eskandari, B Kalantari, Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on task-specific ionic liquids for determination and speciation of chromium in human blood, J. Anal. Chem., 70 (2015) 1448-1455.

M.K. Abbasabadi, F Hosseini, Nanographene oxide modified phenyl methanethiol nanomagnetic composite for rapid separation of aluminum in wastewaters, foods, and vegetable samples by microwave dispersive magnetic micro solid-phase extraction, Food Chem., 347 (2021)129042.

MM Eskandari, Cloud point assisted dispersive ionic liquid-liquid microextraction for chromium speciation in human blood samples based on isopropyl 2-[(isopropoxycarbothiolyl) disulfanyl] ethane thioate, Anal. Chem. Res., 10 (2016) 18-27.

S. Sen Gupta, K. G. Bhattacharyya, Interaction of metal ions with clays: I. A case study with Pb (II), Appl. Clay Sci., 30 (2005) 199–208.

A. A. El-Bayaa, N. A. Badawy, E. Abd AlKhalik, (2009) Effect of ionic strength on the adsorption of copper and chromium ions by vermiculite pure clay mineral, J. Hazard. Mater., 170 (2009), 1204–1209.

A. S. Yahya, Study affecting factors on the recovery of some heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using natural clay, J. Univ. Anbar Pure Sci., 10 (2016) 76-82.

B. M. Vanderborght, R. E. Van Grieken, Enrichment of trace metals in water by adsorption on activated carbon, Anal. Chem., 49 (1977) 311–316.

B. Abbou, Kinetic and thermodynamic study on adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions using natural clay, J. Turk. Chem. Soc. Section A: Chem., 8 (2021) 677–692.

H. Yang, Calcined dolomite: an efficient and recyclable catalyst for synthesis of α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, Catal. Lett., 149 (2019) 778–787.

S. Medina-Carrasco, J. M. Valverde, In situ XRD analysis of dolomite calcination under CO2 in a humid environment, CrystEngComm., 22 (2020) 6502–6516.

H. Gebretsadik, A. Gebrekidan, L. Demlie, Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using Eucalyptus Camaldulensis: An alternate low cost adsorbent, Cogent Chem., 6 (2022) 1720892.

H. Hernández-Cocoletzi, Natural hydroxyapatite from fishbone waste for the rapid adsorption of heavy metals of aqueous effluent, Environ. Technol. Inno., 20 (2020) 101109.

Z. Deng, Modification of coconut shell-based activated carbon and purification of wastewater, Adv. Compos. Hybrid Mater., 4 (2021) 65–73.

B. Yu, Y. Zhang, A. Shukla, S. S. Shukla, K. L. Dorris, The removal of heavy metal from aqueous solutions by sawdust adsorption—removal of copper, J. Hazard. Mater., 80 (2000) 33–42.

S. Wadhawan, A. Jain, J. Nayyar, S. K. Mehta, Role of nanomaterials as adsorbents in heavy metal ion removal from waste water: A review, J. Water Process Eng., 33 (2020)101038.

G. Sarojini, S. Venkateshbabu, M. Rajasimman, Facile synthesis and characterization of polypyrrole-iron oxide–seaweed (PPy-Fe3O4-SW) nanocomposite and its exploration for adsorptive removal of Pb (II) from heavy metal bearing water, Chemosphere, 278 (2021)130400.

Z. A. Alothman, Low cost biosorbents from fungi for heavy metals removal from wastewater,” Sep. Sci. Technol., 55 (2020) 1766–1775.

F. Almomani, R. Bhosale, M. Khraisheh, T. Almomani, Heavy metal ions removal from industrial wastewater using magnetic nanoparticles (MNP), Appl. Surf. Sci., 506 (2020) 144924.

S. Bahah, S. Nacef, D. Chebli, A. Bouguettoucha, B. Djellouli, A new highly efficient algerian clay for the removal of heavy metals of Cu (II) and Pb (II) from aqueous solutions: characterization, Fractal, kinetics, and isotherm analysis, Arab. J. Sci. Eng., 45 (2020) 205–218.

E. C. Nnadozie, P. A. Ajibade, Data for experimental and calculated values of the adsorption of Pb (II) and Cr (VI) on APTES functionalized magnetite biochar using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations, Data brief., 32 (2020)106292.

T. C. Umeh, J. K. Nduka, K. G. Akpomie, Kinetics and isotherm modeling of Pb (II) and Cd (II) sequestration from polluted water onto tropical ultisol obtained from Enugu Nigeria, Applied Water Sci., 11 (2021) 65.

S. Tonk, L. E. Aradi, G. Kovács, A. Turza, E. Rápó, Effectiveness and characterization of novel mineral clay in Cd2+ adsorption process: Linear and non-linear isotherm regression analysis, Water, 14 (2022) 279.

K. S. Obayomi, M. Auta, A. S. Kovo, Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies for adsorption of lead (II) onto modified Aloji clay, Desalin. Water Treat., 181(2020) 376–384.

A. Benmessaoud, D. Nibou, E. H. Mekatel, S. Amokrane, A comparative study of the linear and non-linear methods for determination of the optimum equilibrium isotherm for adsorption of Pb2+ ions onto Algerian treated clay, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng., 39 (2020) 153–171.

A. Samad, M. I. Din, M. Ahmed, Studies on batch adsorptive removal of cadmium and nickel from synthetic waste water using silty clay originated from Balochistan–Pakistan, Chin. J. Chem. Eng., 28 (2020)1171–1176.

M. Osanloo, Validation of a new and cost-effective method for mercury vapor removal based on silver nanoparticles coating on micro glassy balls, Atmos. Pollut. Res., 8 (2017) 359-365.

A. Samad, M. I. Din, M. Ahmed, S. Ahmad, Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles reinforced clay and their applications for removal of Pb (II) ions from aqueous media, Chin. J. Chem. Eng., 32 (2021) 454–461.

How to Cite
Fadhel Ali, F., Al-Rawi, A. S., Aljumialy, A. M., & Ezzat, M. (2024). Dolomite utilization for removal of Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions from wastewater before determination by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Analytical Methods in Environmental Chemistry Journal, 7(02), 74-88.
Original Article